Publications List

Comprehensive listing of books, reports, and research on regional cooperation and integration (RCI) in South Asia and relevant global RCI publications, including publications on transport, trade facilitation, energy, and economic corridors in the SASEC region.

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Asian Development Bank and Nepal: Fact Sheet

The ADB Fact Sheet provides social and economic indicators on Nepal, as well as information on ADB operations in the country and contact details. Nepal is working toward graduation to middle-income country status and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. ADB assistance aims to improve equitable access to education while pursuing a strategy that aims to address bottlenecks in infrastructure development in energy, transport, and urban facilities. ADB operations will also focus on agriculture, gender equality, good governance, environmental sustainability, regional cooperation, and private sector development.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: ADB, Nepal, Sustainable Development Goals, Infrastructure, Energy, Transport, Agriculture, Regional Cooperation, Gender

Transport Policies and Development

This survey reviews the current state of impact assessment of transport investments and policies on growth, inclusion, and sustainability in a developing country context. It reviews the cost and benefits of transport investment and policies in developed countries and discusses challenges in implementing transport interventions in developing countries.

Author: Claudia N. Berg, Uwe Deichmann, Yishen Liu, and Harris Selod

Year: 2017

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Tags: Investment, Sustainability, Transport

Asian Development Bank and Bhutan: Fact Sheet

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) Fact Sheet provides social and economic indicators on Bhutan, as well as information on ADB operations and contact details. Since 1982, ADB has supported Bhutan through projects in energy, finance, and trade facilitation, and transport. ADB has approved loans totaling $498.81 million, grants of $222.4 million, and $73.48 million in technical assistance for Bhutan. ADB support reflects strong emphasis on green energy production, transport connectivity, and urban infrastructure projects. To make growth more inclusive, ADB will help Bhutan through projects focusing on cross-border connectivity, skills development, and agriculture.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: ADB, Bhutan, Energy, Connectivity, Transport, Agriculture, Roads

Asian Development Bank and Myanmar: Fact Sheet

Updated yearly, this Asian Development Bank (ADB) Fact Sheet provides social and economic indicators on Myanmar, as well as information on ADB operations in the country and contact details. ADB is supporting Myanmar in promoting inclusive and sustainable economic growth, with investments focusing on infrastructure (in energy, transport, and urban and water services), education, and rural development. Regional cooperation will remain one of the key priorities.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: ADB, Myanmar, Sustainability, Infrastructure, Energy, Transport, Regional Cooperation

Asian Development Bank and the Maldives: Fact Sheet

This Asian Development Bank (ADB) Fact Sheet provides social and economic indicators on Maldives, and information on ADB operations and contact details. ADB is helping Maldives upgrade commercial and domestic harbors, ensure power supply reliability, boost economic growth, and reduce regional disparities in living standards. Projects in sustainable energy development are helping Maldives achieve carbon neutrality and reduce high fuel costs. Since 1978, ADB has approved 29 loans and grants totaling $248.53 million for Maldives, and has funded 67 technical assistance projects totaling $29.65 million.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: ADB, Maldives, Energy, Transport, Development, Sustainability

International Single Window Environment: Prospects and Challenges

This paper reviews the legal framework needed to implement an international single window environment (ISWE). It shows how ISWE helps create a level playing field for small and medium-sized enterprises in global supply chains. It also looks at prospects and challenges through its examination of the ASEAN Single Window (ASW) and argues that the potential of ISWE can be realized through the integration of transport and commercial requirements.

Author: Abhinayan Basu Bal, Trisha Rajput, and Parviz Alizada

Year: 2017

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Tags: Single Window, Environment, Small and Medium Enterprise, ASEAN, Transport

Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism: Baseline Study in Bhutan

This report synthesizes the business process analysis conducted on import of light motor vehicles from third countries to Bhutan via Kolkata Port, import of plastic kitchenware and tableware (melamine products) from Bangladesh to Bhutan, export of ferrosilicon from Bhutan to third countries through Kolkata Port, and export of cardamom from Bhutan to Bangladesh. It also measures the performance of trade corridors and border crossings in Bhutan, to quantify current trade and transport facilitation and provide recommendations. Findings of the study reveal bottlenecks to trade, including numerous procedures needed to complete import/export, and low speed along the trade corridors. The report includes specific short-term and long-term policies to improve Bhutan’s trade and transport facilitation.

Author: Asian Development Bank and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2017

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Tags: Bhutan, Trade Facilitation, Bangladesh, ADB, Transport

Trade Facilitation and Better Connectivity for an Inclusive Asia and Pacific

This report investigates the evolution of trade costs, examines trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation, and highlights key initiatives in South Asia, including efforts by members of the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC). The SASEC Trade Facilitation and Transport Working Group agreed to expand assistance to trade facilitation through technical assistance to support more efficient, transparent, secure, and service-oriented processing of cross-border trade across South Asia. Through 2025, the SASEC connectivity agenda will be better aligned with the frameworks of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation. To help establish a trade and transport facilitation monitoring mechanism, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Nepal conducted studies that reviewed trade and transport procedures, analyzed bottlenecks, and gave recommendations on trade and transport facilitation.

Author: Asian Development Bank and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2017

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Tags: ADB, Bangladesh, Bhutan, BIMSTEC, Maldives, Nepal, SAARC, India, Myanmar, SASEC, South Asia, Sri Lanka, Trade Facilitation, Transport, UNESCAP

Together We Deliver: 50 Stories of ADB's Partnerships in Asia and the Pacific

This special edition of Together We Deliver tells 50 stories that highlight the importance of good partnerships in Asia and the Pacific in meeting complex development challenges. In South Asia, ADB has supported infrastructure development and social programs, helping lift people out of poverty in a diverse, rapidly urbanizing subregion. The South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Roads Improvement Project, for instance, is set to widen 160 kilometers of Nepal’s East–West Highway, which connects Nepal to India. The improved roads will provide faster and better access to social services and economic opportunities, and will facilitate national and regional integration.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: ADB, Economic Corridor Development, India, Nepal, Regional Integration, Roads, SASEC, South Asia, Transport

Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism: Baseline Study in Bangladesh

This report synthesizes the business process analysis conducted on the export of plastic kitchenware and tableware from Bangladesh to Bhutan through Burimari land port, and the import of lentils from Nepal to Bangladesh through Banglabandha land port, as well as studies on trade corridors and border crossings in Bangladesh, to quantify current trade and transport facilitation in Bangladesh through a set of indicators. Findings of the study reveal bottlenecks to trade, including costly one-time procedures for a new trader, numerous documents and copies required to complete export and import processes, and low speed along the trade corridors. This report includes specific short-term and long-term policies to improve Bangladesh’s trade and transport facilitation.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: Trade Facilitation, Transport, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, SASEC

Performance and Monitoring of Selected Bhutan’s Trade Corridors

This report on performance and monitoring of two corridors, the Kolkata-Phuentsholing corridor and the Burimari-Phuentsholing corridor is the sixth of a six-part study on Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism (TTFMM) in Bhutan. The study finds that average speed along the corridor is very low. Along the Kolkata-Phuentsholing corridor, average speed with delays is 9 kilometers per hour (km/h) and without delays is 15 km/h. Along the Burimari-Phuentsholing corridor, average speed with delays is about 5 km/h and without delays is 16 km/h. The challenges to ensuring efficient transport along the corridor remain significant, yet the study sees tremendous opportunities for improvement, and raises the importance of continuous and effective monitoring to observe whether trade and transport performance along the corridor improve over time.

Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2017

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Tags: UNESCAP, Bhutan, Trade Facilitation, Transport

Business Process Analysis of Export of Ferro Silicon from Bhutan to the Third Countries

This business process analysis report on the export of Cardamom from Bhutan to Bangladesh via Phuentsholing-Jaigaon-Changrabandha-Burimari is the fourth of a six-part study on Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism (TTFMM) in Bhutan. According to the study, it takes 29 days to complete all export procedures for new traders. The process is reduced to 26.5 days without the first time procedures. Total cost to export a typical truckload of two metric tons of cardamom is around $654, with one-time procedures amounting around $308. 24 documents are needed to complete the export process, with some documents requiring extra copies, numbering to as much as 71. Specific recommendations are given to improve trade in this commodity.

Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2017

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Tags: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Trade Facilitation, Transport

Business Process Analysis of Import of Light Motor Vehicles from the Third Countries to Bhutan via Kolkata Port

This business process analysis report on the import of light motor vehicles (LMVs) from third countries to Bhutan via Kolkata Port is the first report of a series of a six-part study on Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism (TTFMM) in Bhutan. Study findings reveal it takes 28.5 days to import LMVs from the Republic of Korea, with costs amounting to around $1,289 to complete the import procedures, not including the applicable duty and taxes payable in Bhutan. 39 documents are needed to complete the import process, with 12 documents requiring extra copies. Specific recommendations are given to improve trade in this commodity.

Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2017

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Tags: UNESCAP, Bhutan, Trade Facilitation, Transport

Lessons from ADB Transport Projects: Moving Goods, Connecting People, and Disseminating Knowledge

This publication shares 20 case stories from the Asian Development Bank bearing practical lessons for transport projects across Asia and the Pacific region under different socioeconomic and political situations. The book includes reports on improving aviation in Bhutan, working on computerized transport and trade logistics in Nepal, and constructing Sri Lanka's Greenfield Highway, and the role policy plays in those projects. It also draws lessons from how India's road development increased rural communities' access to public services and economic opportunities, and how participatory processes in selecting road improvement projects in Bangladesh provide a model for long-term plan for road maintenance.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: ADB, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Railway, Sri Lanka, Transport

Climbing Higher: toward a Middle-income Nepal

Nepal is experiencing modest growth but brisk poverty reduction. It has halved the poverty rate in just seven years and witnessed an equally significant decline in income inequality. Yet Nepal remains one of the poorest and slowest-growing economies in Asia, with per capita income falling behind its regional neighbors. The report discusses the need for comprehensive policy reform to address the country’s challenges in becoming a lower-middle-income country by 2030. The report outlines suggested reforms to facilitate greater investment and improved productivity, build new sources of growth, and deepen human capital.

Author: World Bank Group

Year: 2017

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Tags: Employment, Investment, Nepal, Poverty Reduction, Trade, Transport, WB

2016 Development Effectiveness Review

The Development Effectiveness Review tracks development progress in Asia and the Pacific and monitors the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) effectiveness 2010-2016. For South Asia, ADB shares results in regional cooperation, energy, and road and rail transport. ADB also approved $4.4 billion in financing for projects in South Asia during 2016. The Review includes details of ongoing and newly approved projects.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: ADB, Asia-Pacific, Development, Poverty Reduction, Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, Roads, Transport, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka

Basic Statistics 2017

Basic Statistics 2017 contains development indicators for 45 economies in the Asia and Pacific Region, including the seven SASEC countries, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It includes selected indicators of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as the proportion of population living below $1.90 (PPP) a day, proportion of population with access to electricity, renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption, unemployment rate, total official flows for infrastructure, and trade balance.

Author:

Year: 2017

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Tags: Energy, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Sustainable Development Goals, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka

SASEC Powering Asia in the 21st Century

SASEC Powering Asia in the 21st Century defines the SASEC Vision, framing the SASEC partnership in the larger context of the subregion’s collective growth and development by articulating shared aspirations of the SASEC countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka), and setting the path to achieve these through regional collaboration. The SASEC Vision lays out a subregional transformative opportunity by leveraging natural resources, promoting industry linkages for the development of regional value chains, and expanding the region’s trade and commerce through the development of subregional gateways and hubs.

Author: South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation

Year: 2017

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Tags: SASEC, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Energy

Facilitate Trade for Development: Aid for Trade

The Aid for Trade program has been providing support to developing economies in tackling obstacles to growth through better facilitation of trade in the last 10 years. Since its launch in 2006, a total of $308 billion has been disbursed to finance aid-for-trade programs and projects, which are working to reduce trade and transport costs, promote trade expansion, and achieve economic and social objectives. As high trade costs persist in keeping developing countries from fully exploiting their trade and development potential, the Aid for Trade program remains highly relevant, and will help developing economies, including landlocked and small and vulnerable economies, achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Author: William Hynes and Frans Lammersen

Year: 2017

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Tags: Trade, Development, Aid for Trade, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Least Developed Countries

Development of East Coast Economic Corridor and Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor

The East Coast Economic Corridor (ECEC)—India’s first coastal corridor—is an integrated economic development initiative that is expected to help pursue industrialization and integrate domestic companies into the global value chains of Southeast Asia and East Asia. Its development will start with Vizag–Chennai Industrial Corridor (VCIC), which covers about 800 kilometers and includes several ports and major industrial centers. This paper discusses strategies to consider when trying to improve shipping and air connectivity in the ECEC and Vizag–Chennai Industrial Corridor (VCIC). It stresses the importance of infrastructure development and regulatory reforms that facilitate increased connectivity.

Author: Pritam Banerjee

Year: 2017

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Tags: Bangladesh, Connectivity, Economic Corridor, India, Infrastructure, Regional Integration, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Development

Meeting Asia's Infrastructure Needs

This report estimates infrastructure investment needs in Asia and the Pacific for 2016-2030, updating the Asian Development Bank's assessment for 2010-2020 published in 2009. The report places developing Asia's investment needs at $26 trillion to maintain its growth momentum, eradicate poverty, and respond to climate change. While developing Asia's infrastructure, including its transport network and electricity generation capacity, has improved significantly over the years, it remains far from adequate – lack of reliable power supply continues to constrain economic growth and traffic congestion results in lost productivity, wasted fuel, and human stress. The report recommends $14.7 trillion investment for power and $8.4 trillion for transport. South Asia requires investments valued at 8.8% of gross domestic product.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2017

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Tags: Asia, South Asia, Energy, Transport, Bangladesh, Bhutan, ADB, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Nepal

Time, Uncertainty, and Trade Flows

This paper assesses the impact of international transit time and time-related uncertainty on bilateral trade, including their impact on trade costs. It concludes that international transit time matters primarily for South-South trade, while uncertainty is more important for North-North trade. Both factors are confirmed to be statistically and economically significant determinants of bilateral trade, including global value chains, and strengthens the ground on the emerging policy emphasis to address the overall costs faced by supply chain operators, including costs linked to uncertainty.

Author: Jose Anson, Jean-Francois Arvis, Mauro Boffa, Matthias Helble, and Benjamin Shepherd

Year: 2017

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Tags: Trade, Trade Facilitation, Transport, South-South Trade

Accumulating Trade Costs and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains

This paper examines the implications of trade costs, including applied tariffs, transportation and insurance costs, on competitiveness at industry, national and global levels, and identifies where trade facilitation investment would have the highest social returns from the perspective of global value chains (GVCs). With trade costs amplified along GVCs, profitability of individual business operations are affected by incurred transaction expenses. The authors conclude that direct benefits of trade facilitation will be higher for countries that are not yet well integrated into international trade, but key traders who are at the core of GVCs also stand to gain much.

Author: Antonia Diakantoni, Hubert Escaith, Michael Roberts and Thomas Verbeet

Year: 2017

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Tags: Trade, Tariff, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Global Value Chains

Doing Business 2017: Equal Opportunity for All

Governments including that of India have relied on Doing Business to provide insights into good practices worldwide. Doing Business 2017: Equal Opportunity for All presents quantitative indicators on business regulations that can be compared across 190 economies. It shows how South Asia can work to improve certain areas, including removing restrictions on women’s right to work. It also shows how South Asia has been the most successful region in terms of trading across borders. Bhutan, with a global ranking of 73, ranks highest among South Asian countries.

Author: World Bank Group

Year: 2017

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Tags: Trade Facilitation, Ease of Doing Business, Transport

Global Enabling Trade Report 2016

The Global Enabling Trade Report has been created to provide insight into trade policy and practice. It includes the Enabling Trade Index (ETI), which assesses the extent to which economies have in place institutions, policies, infrastructures and services facilitating the free flow of goods over borders and to their destination. This edition highlights that while an increasingly globalized trading system has been lifting millions out of poverty, trade barriers and costs are still preventing millions of people around the world from engaging in international trade. It reports that all South Asian economies have improved their ETI score over the past two years, with Bhutan as the most improved country in the region, jumping 12 places to 92, followed by India at 102, Sri Lanka at 103, Nepal at 108, Pakistan at 122, and Bangladesh at 123, yet the region remains the most closed worldwide. While South Asia has improved its access to foreign markets and adoption of ICTs, it needs to improve access to its domestic market – on average, South Asian countries impose a tariff of 16.7% on imported products – and enhance its transport infrastructure, particularly in Bhutan and Nepal.

Author: Global Alliance for Trade Facilitation and the World Economic Forum

Year: 2016

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Tags: Trade, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Trade Policy, World Economic Forum, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan

Connecting Bangladesh: Economic Corridor Network

Economic corridors anchored on transport connectivity could significantly boost Bangladesh's economic growth. This paper presents a new set of corridors for Bangladesh – a nine-corridor comprehensive integrated multimodal economic corridor network that will enhance Bangladesh’s role as land bridge between South Asia and Southeast Asia, and between South Asia and northern Asia. These proposed corridors are designed to sustain robust economic growth over the long term by improving regional connectivity, transit, and integration, alongside trade facilitation measures.

Author: Mohuiddin Alamgir

Year: 2016

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Tags: Economic Corridor, Bangladesh, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Connectivity, Transport, Trade Facilitation

Regional Integration in South Asia: Essays in Honour of Dr. M. Rahmatullah

Building efficient transport linkages within and across countries in South Asia is crucial to development of production networks and value chains, and promotion of trade and investment. This collection of essays honors Dr. M. Rahmatullah, who championed the cause of multimodal connectivity in South Asia for seamless movement of goods across Asia, and dreamt of building an integrated South Asia through corridors and gateways to be connected with pan-Asian transport networks. A valuable resource for policymakers, academics, and practitioners working on issues of South Asian regional integration, this book looks at progress made on facilitating trade and enhancing connectivity in the region, assesses policy priorities, implementation imperatives, and emerging challenges to South Asian trade and integration, and gives recommendations on further strengthening South Asian integration.

Author: Prabir De and Mustafizur Rahmant

Year: 2016

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Tags: Transport, Trade, Trade Facilitation, Connectivity, South Asia, South Asian Economic Union

South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Operational Plan 2016-2025

The SASEC Operational Plan 2016–2025 embodies the strategic objectives and operational priorities of the SASEC Program for the next decade. It expands the SASEC Program's focus beyond intraregional cooperation to developing links with Southeast and East Asia, thus widening the scope of transport, trade facilitation, and energy cooperation. Economic and industrial corridor development, which will arise from improved connectivity, has been introduced as a priority initiative. SASEC 2025 is supported by a list of potential projects to be implemented in the subregion during 2016-2025, that will advance the SASEC goals of multi-modal connectivity, energy security and the growth of regional energy markets, and increased intra- and inter-regional trade.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2016

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Tags: SASEC, ADB, Trade Facilitation, Economic Corridor, Transport, Myanmar

ASEAN-India Air Connectivity Report

Air connectivity plays an important component in India’s connectivity agenda with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This ASEAN-India Air Connectivity Report addresses issues and challenges concerning air connectivity between India and ASEAN, including constraints and bottlenecks hindering growth of air cargo that would help unlock trade potential. With India embarking on “Make in India” and “Skill India” policies, stronger air connectivity has become all the more important in the context of India’s drive for economic integration with its neighbors in the east.

Author: ASEAN-India Centre and Research and Information Centre for Developing Countries

Year: 2016

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Tags: Transport, ASEAN, India, Manufacturing

Scaling New Heights: Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor, India’s First Coastal Corridor

This book provides policymakers with a guide to understanding India’s economic corridor development strategy by examining its first coastal economic corridor, the East Coast Economic Corridor. It lays out the plan for its first phase, the Vizag–Chennai Industrial Corridor, which can help unify the country's domestic market, integrate its economy with Asia's global value chains, and support the 'Make in India' initiative to spur manufacturing through construction of world-class infrastructure supported by a major transport network, connecting urban clusters complemented by vibrant industrial zones, and encouraging a favorable and competitive environment for businesses to thrive, and facilitating efficient movement of goods and people. As a policy instrument and development strategy, economic corridors can help fast-track inclusive and sustainable economic growth, stimulate rapid industrialization and increase productivity, promote investments, and expand regional connectivity.

Author: Sabyasachi Mitra, Rana Hasan, Manoj Sharma, Hoe Yun Jeong, Manish Sharma, and Arindam Guha

Year: 2016

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Tags: Economic Corridor, India, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Employment

Together We Deliver 2015: Partnerships against Poverty

This book gathers 14 stories from across Asia and the Pacific that highlight successful projects demonstrating development impact, best practices, and innovation. It includes stories from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka that illustrate how the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its partners, with their combined expertise, problem-solving abilities, and finances lift people’s living standards and solve a variety of pressing development problems. In India, Mumbai’s new Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport is a shining example of how public–private partnerships can help solve the country's infrastructure deficit, increasing efficiency in cargo and passenger handling and saving on energy costs. In Bangladesh, partnership between ADB and nongovernment organizations is bringing health care to the urban poor. In Nepal, a Skills for Employment project is helping those caught in poverty improve their job prospects. In Sri Lanka, ADB and its development partners helped provide a fresh start through electricity, education, health services, and water sanitation.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2016

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Tags: Public Private Partnerships, Transport, Water Sanitation, Employment, Poverty Reduction

ADB Annual Report 2015

The Asian Development Bank's (ADB) 2015 Annual Report provides a complete picture of ADB’s performance in the reporting year. In 2015, South Asia became the fastest-growing regional economy in Asia and the Pacific, and ADB's assistance to the region approached $3.80 billion in combined loans and grants for 22 projects and $37.26 million in grants for technical assistance. Through the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Program, ADB also continued to drive tighter integration in the region, enhancing cooperation and boosting connectivity with initiatives including helping finalize the Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal and India-Myanmar-Thailand Motor Vehicle Agreements, Bangladesh-India power grid upgradation, preparation of high-priority transport projects in Bangladesh, and analytical studies for India's East Coast Economic Corridor.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2016

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Tags: ADB, SASEC, BBIN, Energy, Transport

Connecting Asia: Infrastructure for Integrating South and Southeast Asia

This book contains background papers prepared for the Asian Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank Institute joint study, 'Connecting South Asia and Southeast Asia.' It emphasizes the potential contribution to growth that greater connectivity—through better transport and energy infrastructure and improved soft infrastructure, including trade facilitation—between South Asia and Southeast Asia can foster. With benefits including greater participation in global supply chains for South Asia; lower trade costs; and increase in inter- and intraregional trade, the book underscores that, at a juncture where closer regional integration can secure sustainable and inclusive growth for economies in the two regions, specific policies should be examined and considered to enable both regions to maximize gains from greater integration.

Author: Michael G. Plummer, Peter J. Morgan, Ganeshan Wignaraja, eds.

Year: 2016

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Tags: South Asia, Southeast Asia, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Energy, ADB, Economic Corridor, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka: Building on Success

Over the years, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its many partners in Sri Lanka have worked together to realize the goal of changing the country’s status from low to middle income. With Sri Lanka moving toward becoming an upper middle-income country in a few years, challenges lie on the road ahead. This publication provides an overview of recent ADB support toward Sri Lanka's development in diverse areas including transport, energy and education, and discusses how the Government of Sri Lanka and ADB will transition their partnership to push the country to the next level of prosperity.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2015

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Tags: Sri Lanka, Transport, Ports, Development, Economic Growth

Policy Brief: A Safe Public Transportation Environment for Women and Girls

Ensuring safe public transport for women enhances inclusive growth by encouraging their participation in the public sphere, including the workforce. A range of interventions dealing with the issue of sexual harassment—which negatively impacts women's movement in public spaces, affecting their productivity—in public transportation have been adopted by governments and civil society around the world, including media campaigns, targeted mobile applications, and women-only public vehicles. This report draws on rapid assessments of sexual harassment in public transportation conducted in three countries in Asia, with recommended actions to prevent and address sexual harassment in public transportation and its related spaces, such as train platforms and bus stops.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2015

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Tags: Gender, Inclusive Growth, Transport

Asian Economic Integration Report 2015: How Can Special Economic Zones Catalyze Economic Development?

The 2015 Asian Economic Integration Report reviews regional economic cooperation and integration in Asia, providing updates on recent developments affecting trade policy, including the conclusion of Trans-Pacific Partnership, relatively large number of proposed FTAs--with India among the major proponents, and progress of trade facilitation in Asia through the World Trade Organization's Trade Facilitation Agreement. Trade facilitation in developing Asia has significantly advanced over the last several decades, with a total of 48,000 kilometers of regional transport corridors along major supply chains improved. From 1992 to 2014, developing Asia together with ADB and its partners have mobilized $38.4 billion for 186 regional transport and trade facilitation investment projects under three subregional programs—including the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) program. This also issue includes a special chapter highlighting how special economic zones can catalyze economic development, with the right business environment and policies in place.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2015

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Tags: Special Economic Zones, Trade Facilitation, Transport

South Asia Economic Journal: Supplement Issue: Papers of the Seventh South Asia Economic Summit

This special issue of the South Asia Economic Journal contains papers presented at the 7th South Asia Economic Summit. With South Asia moving toward a South Asia Economic Union (SAEU), several major challenges remain, including reduction in the sensitive list, removal of Non-Tariff Barriers, effective and faster implementation of the South Asian Agreement on Trade in Services, effective regional investment cooperation, promotion of trade facilitation measures, promotion of regional value chains, cross-border energy cooperation. The articles in this volume tackle these critical issues to develop a way forward and generate ideas on policy priorities. A paper by Mr. Nagesh Kumar, UNESCAP-SSWA, on 'Potential and Prospects of Strengthening Transport Connectivity for Regional Economic Integration in Southern Asia' also discusses how two planned extended transport corridors can only facilitate trade and draw South Asia closer to its potential to become a hub of Asia–Europe trade.

Author: Prabir De, editor

Year: 2015

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Tags: SAARC, South Asian Economic Union, Trade Facilitation, Transport

Emerging North-East India: Economically and Socially Inclusive Development Strategies

This report highlights opportunities that can be explored in India's North East region, including tourism, energy, and infrastructure, to enable the North East to develop economically, while contributing to India's development as a whole. It takes stock of recent initiatives, including the 'Look East' Policy and the Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal (BBIN) subregional grouping, and identifies areas for improvement to propel inclusive growth. Harnessing the region's full potential would require upgrading the region's infrastructure. Significant investments are needed, since lack of connectivity and inadequate infrastructure present developmental bottlenecks, contributing to the slow pace of growth in the North East. The report presents policy recommendations and suggested actions, and a forecast for India for 2021-2022.

Author: KPMG India and FICCI

Year: 2015

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Tags: India, BBIN, Connectivity, Transport, Trade Facilitation

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2015

The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2015 includes up-to-date available indicators for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank, including numbers on energy, trade, transport, and tourism. Key trends noted in 2014 include the rising volume of intraregional exports globally, due to robust economic growth and expanding regional networks. For Asia and Pacific economies, primary source for merchandise imports was the region itself with a 49.7% share. In energy consumption, Asia and the Pacific now consumes more than 40% of the world's electricity, with the People's Republic of China and India accounting for nearly 70% of the region's output. This 46th edition of Key Indicators also includes a special chapter on skills, education, and growth in Asia, and emphasizes the need to focus on quality and ensure that the workforce has the skills to take the region through economic transition to prosperity.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2015

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Tags: Economic Growth, Energy, Trade, Transport, India

Regional Transport Infrastructure: Mapping Projects to Bridge South Asia and Southeast Asia

This Asian Development Bank (ADB) brief highlights the critical role of transport infrastructure in bridging South Asia and Southeast Asia. It maps details of economic corridors and highways, railroads, and seaports, and identifies priority transport investment projects needed to link the two subregions. While an investment of $986 million in road transport and $2.3 billion in sea ports may be needed to create proper connectivity between the two regions, the study's conservative estimate of potential benefit ranges from $89 billion to $358 billion over the next decade - demonstrating how investment in infrastructure can pay huge dividends in the medium- and longterm.

Author: Peter Morgan, Mike Plummer, and Ganeshan Wignaraja

Year: 2015

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Tags: Transport, South Asia, Southeast Asia

Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal Motor Vehicles Agreement: Unlocking the Potential for Vibrant Regional Road Freight Connectivity

The Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal Motor Vehicles Agreement (BBIN MVA) is expected to reduce trade transaction costs and be an effective tool to realize trade and investment potential in the subregion by generating new economic opportunities, particularly in the border areas. While it has put in place a good framework for facilitating transit and transport within BBIN, gaps remain in terms of interpretation and application of various procedures, and need for further policy harmonization among the contracting parties. This discussion paper analyzes operation issues and proposes solutions for cross-border movement of vehicles and Customs procedures.

Author: Pritam Banerjee

Year: 2015

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Tags: BBIN, Trade Facilitation, Transport

Driving Across the South Asian Borders: the Motor Vehicle Agreement between Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, and Nepal

This paper discusses the benefits of strengthening physical connectivity in the Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal (BBIN) subregion through a Motor Vehicle Agreement (MVA). Through a framework that envisions transforming transport corridors into economic corridors and with its pipeline of 30 priority transport connectivity projects estimated at $8 billion, the MVA aims to increase intraregional trade in South Asia by almost 60%. This publication provides a concise background on the BBIN MVA, examining the circumstances leading to its signing, the role of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the ADB-supported SASEC Program initiative to enhance interconnectivity, challenges that require careful consideration, and its wider implications for the South Asian region.

Author: Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury, Pratnashree Basu, and Mihir Bhonsale

Year: 2015

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Tags: Transport, Trade Facilitation, BBIN

World Trade Organization Annual Report 2015

The World Trade Organization (WTO) Annual Report 2015 provides an overview of WTO activities in 2014 and early 2015. It presents a timeline of two decades of the WTO -- from its origins succeeding the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to its current role in the multilateral trading system. It presents a chapter on how WTO helps developing countries build trade capacity and allows them to implement trade agreements. WTO training courses are organized for officials from developing countries each year.

Author: World Trade Organization

Year: 2015

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Tags: Trade, Trade Policy, WTO, Tariffs, Energy, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Asia, Agriculture

UNCTAD Transport and Trade Facilitation Newsletter No. 66 – Second Quarter 2015

The Transport and Trade Facilitation Newsletter highlights trade facilitation support across countries and shares innovations from Cote d’Ivoire and Greece, including the new UNCTAD Technical Note on World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) ratification. It also features the meeting of the Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade -- an event that brings together the private sector, WTO Member States and international organizations -- in a discussion to support TFA implementation. The Newsletter further shows United Nations Regional Commissions Global Survey on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade -- a response to the lack of comprehensive cross-country data and a guide to better understand and monitor trade facilitation implementation and paperless trade measures.

Author: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Year: 2015

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Tags: Transport, Trade Facilitation, WTO, UNCTAD

Aid for Trade in Asia and the Pacific: Thinking Forward About Trade Costs and the Digital Economy

Aid for Trade (AfT) flows have increased each year since 2006 in Asia and the Pacific. While regional aggregate trade costs continue to fall, many subregions still struggle with trade costs that are substantially higher than the global average. This report highlights and explores how AfT contributed to these emerging trends in Asia and the Pacific and how to continue to address trade costs moving forward. Among the subregions, the Pacific (along with South Asia) has made the greatest improvements in the Logistics Performance Index from 2007-2014. Recent exporter surveys reveal a movement toward niche products and leveraging of e-commerce as a means to overcome cost and distance. Emerging digital technologies such as e-commerce further offers a new set of opportunities for economies in the region to grow through trade.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2015

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Tags: Aid for Trade, Asia-Pacific, ICT, South Asia, Trade, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Sri Lanka, Agriculture, Energy, Transport

Maldives: Overcoming the Challenges of a Small Island State – Country Diagnostic Study

The Maldives has propelled itself to middle-income status despite the geographic constraints and challenges of a small-island state. It has one of the lowest poverty rates in South Asia, although wide regional disparities in poverty rates and high-income inequality continue to be a concern. Growth – primarily driven by the tourism sector – has also been vulnerable to external shocks. As the Maldives moves toward a more sustainable and inclusive growth strategy, transport infrastructure is critical to help address the country’s connectivity issue and reduce the cost of doing business. This report identifies the critical constraints to inclusive growth in the Maldives and provides policy recommendations to sustain economic growth and hasten poverty reduction.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2015

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Tags: Maldives, Small Island Developing States, Transport, Connectivity, Policy, Poverty Reduction, South Asia, Tourism

Asia-Pacific Countries with Special Needs Development Report 2015

In the Asia-Pacific region, 36 out of the 58 economies are considered countries with special needs (CSN), which include least developed countries (LDC), landlocked developing countries, and small island developing States. This report highlights important areas that should be addressed as key priorities by CSNs such as economic diversification, external trade, South-South cooperation, and official development assistance including foreign direct investment. Bhutan and Nepal met the criteria for graduation from LDC status as of 2013. Other countries such as Bangladesh have a good chance of meeting the graduation criteria by 2018. Among the Small island developing States, Maldives is considered a success story in broadband internet connectivity. The results of this research show that Asia-Pacific CSNs must choose their paths to diversification carefully, depending on country circumstances.

Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2015

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Tags: Asia-Pacific, Least Developed Countries, Small Island Developing States, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Energy, FDI, Investment, Maldives, Nepal, Trade, Transport, UNESCAP

Connecting South Asia and South East Asia

This book analyzes how closer regional connectivity and economic integration between South Asia and Southeast Asia can benefit both subregions. It aims to build a broad case for increased connectivity between the two regions and identify specific projects that have high potential to fulfill this objective. This joint study focuses on both “hard” infrastructure and associated “soft” infrastructure, including tariffs and non-tariff barriers, trade and transport facilitation, energy trading, and infrastructure investment and financing. It further provides a canvas for considering strategic cross-border infrastructure investments and policy reforms.

Author: Asian Development Bank Institute and Asian Development Bank

Year: 2015

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Tags: South Asia, Southeast Asia, Connectivity, Economic Corridor, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka

25 Years on the Ground: ADB-Nepal Partnership for Inclusive Development

This publication commemorates 25 years of Nepal Resident Mission’s opening and provides an overview of the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) operation in Nepal over the years. It highlights ADB-assisted projects and Nepal’s association with the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) initiative, to further enhance the nation’s role in regional and world trade. These projects aim for regional energy cooperation (SASEC Power System Expansion Project), as well as subregional cooperation and connectivity in the transport sector (SASEC Road Connectivity Project and Subregional Transport Facilitation Project).

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2015

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Tags: Nepal, Transport, Energy

Gender Dimensions of Regional Cooperation in South Asia: Gender and Safe Mobility – Promising Global and Regional Practices

This technical report analyzes global practices related to gender equality and safe migration, and their applicability to the context of South Asia. "Hard" aspects, such as physical infrastructure and equipment including border infrastructure, passenger holding facilities and surveillance cameras, and "soft" aspects, such as regional, bilateral and/or country-specific policies, programs, mechanisms and institutional linkages of safe mobility, are presented. The report also presents national policies and procedures that promote safe mobility. Given the lessons drawn from the reviewed policies and practices, it highlights the need for stronger evidence-based approaches in understanding the complex experience of women migrant workers, and identifies the need for more regular peer exchange through periodic regional dialogues of key stakeholder groups.

Author: International Organization for Migration

Year: 2014

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Tags: Gender, Migration, South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Transport, Trade

Asia-Pacific Development Journal Vol. 21, No. 2, December 2014

The paper "Indo-Nepal Economic Cooperation: A Subregional Perspective" published in this issue of the Asia-Pacific Development Journal (APDJ) explores how subregional engagement among bordering regions can stimulate economic cooperation among countries in South Asia. It assesses the current status and potential of greater integration between India and Nepal, and develops a SWOT (strength-weakness-opportunity-threat) analysis reflecting on the need for a subregional approach to promotion of regional cooperation. APDJ, published twice a year by the Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division of UNESCAP, provides a platform for exchange of knowledge, experience, ideas, information and data on all aspects of economic and social development issues and concerns facing the region.

Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2014

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Tags: Economic Integration, India, Nepal, Trade, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Transport, Trade, Tourism

Developing Economic Corridors in South Asia

This book describes key conditions for transforming transport corridors into economic corridors and establishes the rationale for developing economic corridors, and the related benefits from production value chains along those corridors. It further emphasizes the significant potential of economic corridors in South Asia, particularly those being developed under the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Program. The chapters highlight the impact of trade barriers on bilateral trade and present case studies on trade facilitation in South Asia. Countries in the subregion would benefit by working closely to exploit the full economic potential of economic corridors.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: Economic Corridor, South Asia, Trade Facilitation, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, ADB, SASEC, Bilateral Trade, Transport

World Tariff Profiles 2014

This statistical yearbook devoted to market access for goods contains a comprehensive compilation of tariff parameters for each of the 160 World Trade Organization members, plus a number of other countries and customs territories where data is available. Each country profile presents information on tariffs imposed by each economy on its imports, including an analysis of market access conditions in its major export markets. Statistics for all countries allow easy comparisons between countries and sectors, as well as between bound and applied tariffs.

Author: World Trade Organization, International Trade Centre, and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Year: 2014

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Tags: WTO, Customs, Tariff, Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Transport, Tariffs, Trade

Climate Proofing ADB Investment in the Transport Sector: Initial Experience

This publication reviews and documents experiences in transport investments and identifies opportunities to further mainstream climate risk management in transport investment projects. It also presents case studies where climate risk and vulnerability assessment were carried out and climate proofing measures have become an integral component of project design.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: Climate, Transport, Vulnerability, ADB, Bhutan, Energy, Economic Corridor

A World Trade Organization for the 21st Century: The Asian Perspective

This Asian Development Bank Institute book examines key changes in the world trading system and explores policy implications for Asia. Through a compilation of essays from prominent international and Asian trade experts, this book presents interaction of market forces and trade regulation. Lessons from the Asian experience offer new approaches and economic policies to sustain growth, presenting the World Trade Organization as a forum to improve regional and global trade governance in the 21st century.

Author: Richard E. Baldwin, Masahiro Kawai, Ganeshan Wignaraja (Eds.)

Year: 2014

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Tags: Trade, Trade Policy, WTO, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Energy, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Transport

Seaborne Trade between South Asia and Southeast Asia

This Asian Development Bank Institute paper examines trade and the main ports around the Bay of Bengal to identify projects that will enable trade and contribute to improved maritime infrastructure. It also reviews the nature of trade and trade patterns, particularly through the Indian East Coast Corridor study. The paper develops further strategic options for seaport adjustment around the Bay of Bengal to support trade evolution, policy assessment, and other constraints.

Author: David Wignall, Mark Wignall

Year: 2014

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Tags: Transport, Trade, Ports, ADB, India, Economic Corridor, Bangladesh, Energy, Myanmar, Sri Lanka

Regional Transit Agreement in South Asia: An Empirical Investigation

This discussion paper published by the South Asia Watch on Trade, Economics and Environment assesses the potential gains of a sub-regional transit arrangement and the removal of other border-trade barriers, particularly the eastern South Asia sub-region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal). It also discusses the link between transit and trade flows, provides profiles of intra-regional transit trade and current transit arrangements in South Asia, and identifies efficient regional transit corridors using linear programming or the Data Envelopment Analysis model.

Author: Prabir De and Arvind Kumar

Year: 2014

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Tags: South Asia, Trade, Transport, Economics, Economic Corridor, SASEC, SAARC, UNESCAP, Customs, Harmonisation, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Sri Lanka

UNCTAD Transport Newsletter: Fourth Quarter 2014

This United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) newsletter focuses on the development dimension and benefits of the World Trade Organization Trade Facilitation Agreement. It includes sections on the national trade facilitation committees, project proposal for the implementation of trade facilitation measures contained in the agreement, and improvement in implementation of sanitary and phytosanitary measures to facilitate trade. It also includes UNCTAD’s contribution to trade facilitation in Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States.

Author: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Year: 2014

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Tags: Trade Facilitation, WTO, UNCTAD, Transport, Development, Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Energy, India

Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2014

The Statistical Yearbook contains comparative statistics and facts about the 58 regional members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. It includes brief analyses of 32 key development features such as energy supply and use, international trade, and transport, among others. In energy, the region’s production structure is highly resource-intensive, although per capita energy use is low. The section on international trade recommends focusing on raising domestic value-added rather than increasing gross exports in Asia and the Pacific. Finally, investment in environmentally sustainable transport is encouraged.

Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2014

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Tags: Asia-Pacific, Energy, Trade, Transport, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka

The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities

This book explores the inter-linkages between ports and urban development. It provides an internationally comparative benchmark study of port cities. Case-studies of selected port-cities provide detailed analysis of port performance, port impacts, policies, and governance. The least time-efficient ports are located in Africa and South Asia. Mumbai, India, for example – one of the selected port-city profiles – lacks port infrastructure and suffers from heavy regulation.

Author: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

Year: 2014

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Tags: Transport, Ports, India

UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2014

The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics is a collection of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, investment and development. The 2014 edition shows the increasing convergence of trade balance between developing and developed economies continues. The report also includes regional trade data from South Asia that shows average annual growth rate of international trade improved from a previous deficit of -7.1% in 2012 to -0.1% in 2013. However, trade balance ran a deficit of -26.51% compared to the previous year's -25.94%. Trade indicators also report intra-trade in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation region rose modestly from US$ 20,219 million to US$ 23,181 million between 2012 to 2013 and maintains intra-regional trade percentage at 5.8%.

Author: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Year: 2014

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Tags: UNCTAD, Regional Trade, Development, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Transport

The Connectivity Agenda

This article appeared in the special issue of My Republica published on the occasion of the 18th SAARC Summit. Mr. Ronald Antonio Q. Butiong, Unit head of the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Regional Cooperation and Operations Coordination Division of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), traces the blueprints of SASEC projects to the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Regional Multimodal Transport Study (2006) and SAARC Regional Energy Trade Study (2010); two studies supported by ADB and endorsed by SAARC member states. Highlighting the SASEC focus to promote economic cooperation in the subregion by developing cross-border connectivity and facilitating intra-regional trade in South Asia through its priority sectors—energy, transport, and trade facilitation—Mr. Butiong explains how ADB is providing assistance to sections of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal along SAARC corridors through SASEC. Featuring a brief discussion of key SASEC projects and technical assistance (since 2001, 33 projects implemented, worth over US$6 billion) alongside institution and capacity-building support, the article shows how the SASEC connectivity agenda is part of achieving SAARC development objectives.

Author: Ronald Antonio Q. Butiong

Year: 2014

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Tags: SAARC, Energy, Transport, Trade Facilitation

Bridging Transport, ICT, and Energy Infrastructure Gaps for Seamless Regional Connectivity

This publication is a contribution by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific to deliberations at the Second United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) in Vienna, Austria, 3-5 November 2014. It shows regional connectivity as an unfinished agenda and bridging infrastructure gaps as a complex challenge for LLDCs. While physical infrastructure is a priority, this report argues that deeper regional integration – through regionally cohesive and terrestrial networks – is key to effectively linking Asian LLDCs to the region’s infrastructure networks.

Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Year: 2014

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Tags: Transport, ICT, Energy, UNESCAP, SASEC, Connectivity, Infrastructure, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Trade, Trade Facilitation, Policy, Trade Policy

Review of Maritime Transport 2014

The Review of Maritime Transport is an annual UNCTAD flagship publication since 1968. It provides analysis of structural and cyclical changes affecting seaborne trade, ports and shipping, freight markets, and transport and regulatory frameworks. It further presents statistics, data, and insights on ownership of the world fleet, with South Asia dominating the market for ship recycling. This year’s special chapter focuses on the challenges faced by the world’s Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and reviews shipping-related challenges resulting from SIDS size, remoteness, and exposure to natural hazards, including impacts of climate change.

Author: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Year: 2014

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Tags: Transport, Ports, Small Island Developing States, UNCTAD, Trade, South Asia, Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka

Asian Economic Integration Monitor: November 2014

This AEIM review of recent economic performance highlights the need for Asia to rebalance its sources of growth toward domestic and regional demand. It also shows a resilient Asia with rising GDP growth in South Asia. This issue includes a Special Chapter: Regional Financial Integration and Crisis in Asia and Europe – A Comparative Analysis. It presents Asia’s future path of integration as different from that in Europe. Asia will continue to strengthen efforts to harmonize rules and regulations in the financial sector and further unilateral trade and investment, while Europe is more likely to strengthen regional institutions to ensure recovery and better the monetary union.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: Asia-Pacific, Economic Integration, Europe, ASEAN, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Regional Integration, Sri Lanka, Trade Facilitation, Transport

Industrialization and Global Value Chain Participation: An Examination of Constraints Faced by the Private Sector in Nepal

This paper examines the constraints behind and beyond Nepal's borders that hinder its full participation in global value chains (GVC). Basing the analysis on recent and relevant publications, key economic data, and interviews with policymakers and stakeholders, the authors explain how weak and uncertain industrial policy has led to de-industrialization. They also looked at the effects of inadequate infrastructure, energy shortage, and inefficient transit. Failures in coordination, shallow regional integration and non-tariff barriers also bar further growth of Nepal's industrial development and GVC participation. The authors recommend necessary domestic reforms for behind-the-border constraints, and subregional partnerships—facilitated through the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation program—for beyond-the-border challenges.

Author: Yurendra Basnett and Posh Raj Pandey

Year: 2014

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Tags: Infrastructure, Private Sector, Nepal, Global Value Chains, Industrialization, Infrastructure, Energy, Transport, Regional Integration, SASEC

SASEC Website Brochure

This promotional brochure for the SASEC website features the web portal as a one-stop shop for information on SASEC activities, events, projects, and knowledge materials. The SASEC website seeks to build a dynamic discussion platform and repository of data on regional cooperation.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: SASEC, Knowledge Product, ICT, ADB, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, South Asia, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Energy

SASEC Brochure

This promotional brochure is a concise introduction to the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Program, highlighting the main areas of regional cooperation and activity. It includes facts and figures about SASEC projects in transport, trade facilitation, energy, and ICT.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: SASEC, Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, ICT, ADB, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Energy, Transport, Connectivity

SASEC Trade Facilitation Strategic Framework 2014-2018

The South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Trade Facilitation Strategic Framework 2014-2018 builds on the momentum of member countries over recent years in forging ahead with many significant improvements to facilitate, and ultimately increase, trade in the subregion and with the rest of the world. It supports the mission of the SASEC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy “to promote the prosperity of the subregion by facilitating the efficient movement of trade across the borders”, and focuses on five priority areas: customs modernization and harmonization; standards and conformity assessment strengthening; cross-border facilities improvement; through-transport facilitation; and institution and capacity building.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: SASEC, Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade, Customs, Standards, Harmonisation, Regional Integration, ADB, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, South Asia

Port Management Series Volume 1: Port Management Case Studies

This publication presents summaries of the best three dissertations from the past cycle of the English-speaking network of the Train-for-Trade Port Training Program (2011-2013). This United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Train-For-Trade Port Training Programme supports port communities in developing countries achieve efficient and competitive port management. The findings of the Maldives study reveal the possibility of reducing port maintenance by 15% of total operating costs through adherence to a maintenance schedule, standardizing equipment in procurement policy, updating maintenance requirements and available equipment, and recording maintenance expenditure.

Author: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Year: 2014

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Tags: Maldives, Transport, Ports

A Connectivity-Driven Development Strategy for Nepal: From a Landlocked to a Land-Linked State

Transforming Nepal from a landlocked into a land-linked state, the authors argue, could be key to unlocking the country's much-awaited growth. With its strategic location between India and the People's Republic of China, a connectivity-driven development strategy could energize Nepal's lackluster post-conflict economic performance. Further, Nepal implements a multi-track approach to promoting regional cooperation and integration in connectivity with its neighbors, reinforced through participation in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation, and South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation. By identifying ten priority projects that could further boost Nepal's connectivity, the paper also discusses how strengthening Nepal's transport, energy, and trade links could benefit the region. However, the authors also warn against “internal threats” to Nepal's development—corruption and the country's difficult political situation.

Author: Pradumna B. Rana and Binod Karmacharya

Year: 2014

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Tags: Nepal, Economic Corridor, Regional Trade, Connectivity, Development, Economic Growth, SASEC, India, Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, SAARC, BIMSTEC, Transport, Energy, Trade

Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2014

This 2014 edition of UNESCAP's flagship publication emphasizes the importance of furthering regional connectivity in Asia-Pacific—a region which, despite significant reductions in poverty levels, is now witnessing rising income inequality, both within and between countries. It calls for driving the region's growth by exploiting the interdependence and synergies of five elements: trade and transport connectivity, ICT networks, energy connectivity, people-to-people networks, and promotion of knowledge-based economies, and advocates approaching connectivity as a regional public good.

Author: UNESCAP

Year: 2014

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Tags: Economic Integration, Regional Cooperation, Poverty Reduction, Asia-Pacific, Connectivity, Energy, ICT, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Trade, Transport, UNESCAP

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2014

This year's edition presents an in-depth inquiry on poverty in Asia, tackling whether the $1.25/day extreme poverty standard still accurately depicts minimum living standard of the poor in Asia and the Pacific. Using this broad measure, the poverty rate is projected to fall to 24.5% for South Asia by 2030, if recent economic growth trends continue. However, considering the current national poverty line average among today's less developed economies in the region, an Asia-specific extreme poverty line is more accurately estimated at $1.51/day, increasing Asia’s poverty rate in 2010 by 9.8%, and of a large economy like India by 15%. Hence, despite huge gains made, reducing poverty remains a pressing challenge in Asia and the Pacific. This book proposes several measures to counteract worsening poverty, including close regional cooperation which can reduce a country’s vulnerability, and urgent policy actions that promote economic growth and prioritize climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: Poverty Reduction, Disaster Risk, Regional Cooperation, Asia-Pacific, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Economics, Energy, India, Maldives, Milennium Development Goals, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Sustainability, Transport

Economic Implications of Deeper South Asian–Southeast Asian Integration: A CGE Approach

High tariff and non-tariff barriers, and costly transport links and inefficient trade facilitation measures continue to hamper the growth of trade between South Asia and Southeast Asia. This paper explores whether potential gains from improved connectivity—via Myanmar as inter-regional bridge—justify a high level of investment. Using an advanced computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, reduction of inter-regional tariffs, decreasing of non-tariff barriers by 50%, and cutting down of trade costs between South Asia and Southeast Asia by 15% yields a prediction of 8.9% rise in welfare in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and an increase of 6.4% in gross domestic product by 2030.

Author: Ganeshan Wignaraja, Peter Morgan, Michael Plummer, and Fan Zhai

Year: 2014

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Tags: Transport, Trade Facilitation, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Regional Integration, Tariff, Trade, Connectivity, Investment, Myanmar, GDP

Nepal: Development Effectiveness Brief 2014

Nepal has the potential to achieve more inclusive growth and can largely benefit from regional cooperation and integration with its developing neighbors. It is also benefiting from South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation, a flagship ADB-supported program that promotes economic cooperation and integration in areas of trade facilitation (custom modernization and transport connectivity), power development, trade, and tourism development. This brief further explores ADB’s contribution to inclusive development and poverty reduction, energy, and transport. Exporting energy when surplus is available is one way of meeting seasonal demand by subregional cooperation and power trade. Transport infrastructure is also another key ingredient to equitable, inclusive growth that can address challenges such as lack of market access, inadequate roads, and poor connectivity.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: Nepal, Regional Cooperation, South Asia, ADB, Connectivity, Energy, Roads, SASEC, Trade, Transport

Future of Factory Asia

This volume, co-published by the Asian Development Bank and the Korea Economic Research Institute, reflects one of the broad thematic sessions of the Seoul conference, Beyond Factory Asia. It assesses the challenges and sustainability of the Factory Asia model – supplying from the East and consuming in the West – and provides suggestions and strategies on effective management of these concerns. The volume further analyzes obstacles in the success of Factory Asia, its speed in expanding its own domestic and regional markets, and its progress in upgrading competitiveness in the manufacturing sector. The new Factory Asia must nurture new sources of growth in the region and focus on regional economic integration.

Author: Choi Byung-il and Changyong Rhee (eds.)

Year: 2014

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Tags: Economic Integration, Asia-Pacific, Trade Policy, ADB, Asia, Manufacturing, Regional Integration, Bangladesh, Energy, Sri Lanka, Transport

The Role of Sri Lanka in Enhancing Connectivity between South Asia and Southeast Asia

As Sri Lanka rebuilds at the end of a 30-year conflict, its progress in improving physical infrastructure—including the Colombo port expansion and other programs for new expressways and road connectivity—has been significant. Yet, the country has seen a sharp decline in its overall exports-to-gross domestic product ratio. How Sri Lanka can benefit from greater connectivity with its neighbors in South Asia and Southeast Asia is discussed in this paper. Trade policies geared towards enhancing regional integration efforts could boost Sri Lanka's economy. Additionally, to lessen the challenges of financing and sustaining implementation of planned infrastructure development efforts, Sri Lanka could also implement a more stringent institutional and regulatory environment encouraging more private sector participation.

Author: Dushni Weerakoon and Nipuni Perera

Year: 2014

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Tags: Trade Policy, Trade Facilitation, Sri Lanka, Connectivity, South Asia, Southeast Asia, ADB, Transport, Regional Integration

Trade and Investment Barriers Affecting International Production Networks in India

Recognizing India as an outlier in development of international production networks with the lowest participation among Asian countries, this study investigates the reason for India’s lackluster participation in production-sharing networks. Using desk work, field surveys, and interviews, an analysis is adopted with three comparator countries in the region that have been successful in production-sharing arrangements as well as industrial growth – China, Malaysia, and Thailand. It further describes foreign direct investment inflows into India, analyzes behind-the-border investment environment, and provides recommendations to improve investment climate and hasten the pace of manufacturing development in India.

Author: Anwarul Hoda and Durgesh Kumar Rai

Year: 2014

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Tags: India, Trade, Production Networks, Investment, Thailand, Manufacturing, Customs, Economic Corridor, Energy, Trade Facilitation, Transport

Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014

The World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report offers a platform for dialogue among key stakeholders in government, business, and civil society on improving the living standards of the world’s citizens through insights on institutions, policies, and factors that drive or hinder growth and national competitiveness. Using the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), twelve pillars are considered, including infrastructure, which, among factor-driven economies of Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, impacts the location of economic activity, reduces distance between regions, and enables production and faster flow of goods. Market size—essential for countries with small domestic markets—is another key index measured. The 2013-2014 report also includes an assessment of newly-covered Bhutan, and an analysis for the drop in India's GCI ranking.

Author: Klaus Schwab

Year: 2014

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Tags: Economics, Poverty Reduction, Infrastructure, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Energy, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Transport

Asian Development Outlook 2014: Fiscal Policy for Inclusive Growth

The Asian Development Outlook, ADB’s flagship economic publication provides comprehensive macroeconomic analysis in Asia including growth projections by country and region. The Asian Development Outlook 2014 forecasts that developing Asia will grow 6.2% in 2014 and 6.4% in 2015. South Asia remains one of the slowest growing subregions—although growth is forecast to improve by 5.3% in 2014 and 5.8% in 2015.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: ADB, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Economic Corridor, Energy, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Transport

Asian Economic Integration Monitor - April 2014

The Asian Economic Integration Monitor, a semiannual review of regional economic cooperation and integration in Asia covers regional economic updates, intraregional trade, financial integration and investment, and the importance of disaster risk financing instruments. The Theme Chapter: Insuring Against Asia’s Natural Catastrophes discusses market solutions and the role of government in developing disaster risk financing and strengthening financial resilience. The economic update section encourages strengthening regional cooperation in surveillance and financial safety nets, and deepening economic links. Inter-subregional trade between each subregion and the rest of Asia is rising, except in South Asia, while financial integration continues to deepen across the region.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, South Asia, Disaster Risk, Climate, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Transport

Lose to Gain: Is Involuntary Resettlement a Development Opportunity?

This book examines how displaced persons recover from physical and economic displacement in the South Asian context using resettlement case studies from India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Despite improvement in national policies and willingness to enforce good practices, the level of involuntary resettlement good practices in South Asia varies widely. There is need for greater commitment, legal reforms, and adequate resources to ensure that involuntary resettlement becomes a development opportunity for all project-affected persons.

Author: Perera, Jayantha (ed.)

Year: 2014

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Tags: India, Nepal, South Asia, Resettlement, Bangladesh, Energy, Renewables, Sri Lanka, Transport

Towards a National Integrated and Sustainable Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism: BPA+

This ADB-UNESCAP publication aims to provide guidance to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region on establishing a sustainable trade and transport facilitation monitoring mechanism (TTFMM). Underpinning the TTFMM is the integrated methodology of Business Process Analysis Plus (BPA+), which is built on the Business Process Analysis methodology, and supplemented by Time Release Studies (TRS) and Time-Cost-Distance (TCD) methodologies. It is envisaged that establishment of TTFMM will enable effective monitoring and enhancement of national trade facilitation on a continuous basis and in a sustainable manner.

Author: UNESCAP

Year: 2014

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Tags: Trade Facilitation, Transport Facilitation, Transport, Trade Policy, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka

Economic Corridor Development for Inclusive Asian Regional Integration: Modeling Approach to Economic Corridors

The experience of economic corridor development in different regions across continents is examined in this publication, which shares detailed models that assess the economic impact of corridor investments. The South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) model highlights the regionally inequitable impact of corridor projects and focuses on the incremental effects of infrastructure investments in terms of gains in per capita income.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2014

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Tags: Transport, Trade Policy, Economic Corridor, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka

Reducing Poverty by Closing South Asia's Infrastructure Gap

This report takes a critical look at inter-and intra-regional infrastructure of South Asia and explores inequality of access across space and time. It gives an approximate total cost of regional infrastructure needs and investment trends in the South Asia region, along with a proposed framework on ranking of infrastructure needs. The report also examines better usage of existing resources and policy options to help the poorest gain better access to infrastructure. Finally, it recognizes the enormity of infrastructure deficiencies in South Asia and acknowledges that a good mix of infrastructure investment and supportive reform implementation will enable the region to close the infrastructure gap.

Author: Luis Andrés, Dan Biller, and Matías Herrera Dappe

Year: 2013

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Tags: Transport, South Asia, Infrastructure, Energy, Roads, Railway, Water Supply, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Maldives

Connecting South Asia and Southeast Asia: Interim Report

This joint ADB-ADBI study focuses on how improved physical connectivity (infrastructure) and associated institutional connectivity (software) can enhance more effective economic integration between the two subregions. The report reviews economic ties, identifies issues and constraints, and explores better connectivity and closer economic integration. It also examines major developments in South Asia-Southeast Asia trade and investment, economic cooperation, role of economic corridors, and regional cooperation initiatives.

Author: ADB and ADBI

Year: 2013

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Tags: Infrastructure, Economic Integration, Regional Cooperation, Trade, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Economic Corridor, Energy

ADB Regional Cooperation Operations Business Plan (RCOBP) 2014-2016 for South Asia

ADB's third Regional Cooperation Operations Business Plan (RCOBP) 2014-2016 for South Asia under its South Asia Regional Cooperation Strategy (RCS) 2011-2015 details a cumulative indicative lending program of $3.3 billion and maintains focus on improved regional connectivity, increased cross-border trade, and strengthened regional economic cooperation.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2013

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Tags: Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Energy, SAARC

Review of Developments in Transport in Asia and the Pacific 2013

While transport has been an essential element in the rapid growth and economic development of Asia and the Pacific, the sector is now at a crossroads more than ever before. Rocketing demand for transport services is putting extreme pressure on existing infrastructure at a time when public budgets are constrained and awareness about the negative externalities of transport activities is growing.

Author: United Nations

Year: 2013

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Tags: Transport, Infrastructure

India-ADB Development Partnership 2013

This publication showcases how Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been working closely with the Government of India to improve the overall design, delivery, and development effectiveness of ADB's India program.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2013

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Tags: India, Regional Cooperation, ADB, Energy, Transport, Regional Integration, Economic Corridor, Trade Facilitation

Bangladesh-ADB: 40 Years of Development Partnership

ADB's Bangladesh program evolved over time in close alignment with the country's priorities of attaining rapid economic growth and poverty reduction

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2013

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Tags: Bangladesh, Regional Cooperation, Energy, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Ports, Trade

Aid for Trade: An Investment Benefit Road Map for South Asia

Aid for Trade (AfT) came to prominence just over a decade ago at the launch of the World Trade Organization's Doha Round. With its focus on helping least developed countries and economies escape the poverty trap, it aims to strengthen their capabilities to meet market demand and to reduce supply-side constraints such as a lack of trade infrastructure.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2013

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Tags: Trade Policy, Poverty Reduction, Infrastructure, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Global Value Chains, Exports

Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific: October 2013

The Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific aims to support ADB energy sector operations by providing stakeholders with an energy outlook for the region up to the year 2035. It attempts to identify policy, social, infrastructure, and technology issues that must be addressed to meet future energy need of ADB members in Asia and the Pacific.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2013

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Tags: Energy, Infrastructure, Renewables, Hydropower, Transport, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Sri Lanka

What is Economic Corridor Development and What Can It Achieve in Asia's Subregions?

Economic corridors connect economic agents along a defined geography. They provide important connections between economic nodes or hubs that are usually centered in urban landscapes. They do not stand alone, as their role in regional economic development can be comprehended only in terms of the network effects that they induce.

Author: Hans-Peter Brunner

Year: 2013

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Tags: Economic Corridor, Economics, Transport, Development, ADB, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka

Sector Roadmaps with Result Frameworks

Sector roadmaps with result frameworks for transport, energy, and trade facilitation.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2011

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Tags: Trade Facilitation, Energy, Transport, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka

The Institutions of Regionalism in South Asia - Do Institutions Matter?

This paper assesses the contribution of key institutions of regional cooperation and integration (RCI) in South Asia, and suggests ways in which the Asian Development Bank and other development partners can strengthen their support. It attempts to enhance understanding on the interplay between politics and RCI, including how good bilateral political relations or improvements have advanced RCI. With the overall political environment growing increasingly open to RCI, the paper suggests the time has come for the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) to consider strengthening the capacity of the SAARC Secretariat to meet the growing challenges and work load of managing the anticipated increase in RCI.

Author: Prabhu Ghate

Year: 2011

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Tags: Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, Development, SAARC, Trade, Services, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Free Trade Agreements, SAFTA, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Transport

The Provision of Regional Public Goods in South Asia

This report reviews the provision of high priority regional public goods (RPGs) selected for the South Asia subregion, and proposes areas of cooperation for improving the provisioning of RPGs in South Asia. It highlights the issues in cross border management of infrastructure projects and best practices in the provisioning of RPGs relevant for South Asia, evaluates ADB’s contributions to providing RPGs in the subregion, and concludes with recommendations on ADB’s South Asia Regional Department’s role in the provision of RPGs in the subregion.

Author: Khaja Moinuddin

Year: 2010

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Tags: Energy, Agriculture, Disaster Risk, Governance, Poverty Reduction, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Trade Facilitation, Transport

Binding Contraints to Regional Cooperation and Integration in South Asia

This paper examines the benefits of regional cooperation and integration, focusing on the cost of neglecting to address the binding constraints to regional cooperation and integration. Component papers in this volume analyze the current state of play, and identifies the binding constraints to achieving more efficient transport corridors, regional energy trade and trade facilitation in the region.

Author: Gilberto M. Llanto

Year: 2010

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Tags: Regional Cooperation, Economic Integration, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Transport

Infrastructure for a Seamless Asia

The study reviews regional infrastructure being enhanced through regional cooperation in Asia and examines major issues and challenges. It suggests a framework for pan-Asian infrastructure cooperation, anchored on a long-term vision of creating a seamless Asia that will not only enhance the region's competitiveness and extend its global reach, but also help reduce poverty and promote greater environmental sustainability.

Author: Asian Development Bank / Asian Development Bank Institute

Year: 2009

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Tags: Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Connectivity, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Asian Highway, Trans-Asian Railway Network, Energy, Myanmar

Pan-Asian Integration

In today's globalized world where the economic fates of nations are inevitably linked, weathering the present economic storm for Asia will increasingly depend on harnessing regional dynamics particularly on the trade front. Pan-Asian Integration: Linking East and South Asia is a rich volume of perspectives from leading thematic experts on regional patterns of trade and investment, trade-related infrastructure, trade facilitation, among others.

Author: Asian Development Bank

Year: 2009

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Tags: Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, Trade Policy, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Economics, India, Free Trade Agreements

Quantification of Benefits from Economic Cooperation in South Asia

The study examines the implication of the South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) on South Asian countries and on the region as a whole, employing both a quantitative and qualitative assessment on the outcomes of SAFTA. The research aims to provide support in the formulation of concrete policy measures for trade to ensure greater gains for the region, while at the same time mitigating potential negative impacts. Economic and social assessments through analytical tools and rational causal chain analysis further enrich the study.

Author: Asian Development Bank / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Year: 2008

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Tags: Economic Corridor, Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, SAFTA, Free Trade Agreements, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Services, SAARC, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka

SAARC Regional Multimodal Transport Study - SRMTS

SAARC Regional Multimodal Transport Study - SRMTS

Author: SAARC Secretariat

Year: 2006

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Tags: Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration

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