Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2020 Supplement: Paths Diverge in Recovery from the Pandemic
This publication provides updated economic forecasts for Asia and the Pacific. In South Asia, the earlier forecast of 6.8% contraction in 2020 is upgraded to 6.1%. Growth in South Asia is expected to return in 2021 at 7.2%. This is in line with improved prospects for India, where contraction is projected at 8.0% in 2020 and growth is projected at 8.0% in 2021. In Bangladesh, growth in exports and remittances backed economic activity. In Bhutan, the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is expected to be greater than projected. Travel demand remains weak in Maldives and is hampering recovery. In Nepal, a persistent rise in COVID-19 infections holds back demand. Resurgent outbreaks in Sri Lanka’s export and tourist markets are expected to worsen contraction in 2020.
Author: Asian Development Bank
Tags: South Asia, India, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Tourism, COVID-19, Export
Trade and Transport Facilitation Monitoring Mechanism in Nepal
This report synthesizes the business process analysis conducted on import of wool through Kolkata-Birgunj-Kathmandu, export of wool carpet from Kathmandu-Birgunj-Kolkata, and import of fabrics from Bangladesh to Nepal through Dhaka-Banglabandha-Fulbari-Panitanki-Kakarbhitta-Kathmandu. It also measures the performance of trade corridors and border crossings in Nepal, to quantify current trade and transport facilitation and provide recommendations. Findings of the study reveal bottlenecks to trade, including procedures needed to complete import/export, compounded by requirements for transiting trade through India, which further prolongs the trade process and increases the cost. The report includes specific short-term and long-term policies to improve Nepal’s trade and transport facilitation.
Author: Asian Development Bank and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
Tags: Trade Facilitation, Nepal, Import, Export
World Tariff Profiles 2017
World Tariff Profiles is a joint publication of the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Trade Centre, and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development devoted to information on market access for goods. It contains comprehensive data on tariffs and non-tariff measures imposed by over 170 countries and Customs territories. This year’s edition takes a close look at export diversification, analyzing to what extent economies have diversified their exports over time. Many countries make it a policy to diversify exports to obtain bigger market shares. An overview of export diversification shows how India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Bhutan have grown in the last two decades. Bangladesh in particular has achieved significant increase in terms of both product coverage and market reach.
Author: World Trade Organization, International Trade Centre, and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
Tags: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Export, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tariffs, Trade, UNCTAD, WTO
Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2017 Supplement: Cautious Optimism for Asia's Outlook
With export demand stronger than expected in the first quarter of 2017, Asia’s GDP is expected to expand faster than forecast in April in Asian Development Outlook 2017. Developing Asia is now expected to grow by 5.9% in 2017. The smaller upgrade in the 2018 growth forecast—5.7% in ADO 2017 to 5.8%—reflects a cautious view on the pace of the turnaround in external demand. Excluding the newly industrialized economies, growth projections for the region are revised up to 6.4% for 2017 and to 6.3% for 2018. India is expected to achieve April forecasts of 7.4% growth in 2017 and 7.6% in 2018, primarily from strong consumption. Growth projections for South Asia are likewise maintained as prospects remain robust.
Author: Asian Development Bank
Tags: ADB, Development, Export, Bangladesh, India, South Asia
World Trade Statistical Review 2017
The World Trade Statistical Review looks at the last 10 years and examines the latest developments in world trade, with a detailed analysis of the most recent trends for trade in goods and services. The book gives information on the participation of India, Bangladesh, and other South Asian economies in world trade, and highlights trends in the use of trade-facilitating measures. It also gives information on the implementation of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement and regional trade agreements, such as the South Asian Free Trade Arrangement.
Author: World Trade Organization
Tags: Export, Least Developed Countries, Aid for Trade, SAFTA, South Asia, Trade Facilitation, WTO, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka
Customs Reform and Modernization Strategies and Action Plan 2017-2021
The Customs Reform and Modernization Strategies and Action Plan 2017-2021 of the Nepal Department of Customs (DOC) aims to serve as a blueprint of Customs reform for the next four years, with a vision to support Nepal's initiatives toward economic and social prosperity. With Nepal seeing continuous increase of cross-border trade over the last decades, this Plan is being implemented to align Nepal toward international standards. It outlines the DOC's vision, mission, guiding principles, as well as strategies, such as expediting legitimate trade facilitation and enhancing Customs automation and data management, to create a conducive environment for seamless movement of cargo traffic to and from the borders, and help in lowering transaction costs through greater transport facilitation.
Author: Nepal Department of Customs
Tags: Customs, Customs Valuation, Nepal, Trade Facilitation, Import, Export, Trade, Revised Kyoto Convention
Time Release Study: Mechi and Biratnagar Customs 2017
Time Release Study is a special tool developed by the World Customs Organization to measure effectiveness of operational procedures carried out by Customs, other regulatory agencies and private sector stakeholders in the standard processing of imports, exports, cross border and transit movements. A key activity identified in Nepal's Customs Reform and Modernization Strategies and Action Plan 2013-2017, it identifies the average time taken for clearance of consignments from entry to exit in the Customs area, enabling possible corrective measures to
improve performance. This Study was undertaken to support trade facilitation measures being introduced by the Nepal Department of Customs to reduce bottlenecks to faster Customs clearance, and promote seamless movement of cargo traffic to and from the Country.
Author: Nepal Department of Customs TRS Working Group
Tags: Trade Facilitation, Time Release Study, Import, Export, Trade, Nepal, WCO
Changing Patterns of Trade and Global Value Chains in Postcrisis Asia
This Asian Development Bank brief examines how patterns of trade and global value chains (GVCs) in developing Asia have changed since the global financial crisis. The paper reports that export slowdown in the region was caused by a combination of weak import demand for Asian goods in advanced economy markets, structural transformation and reduced import demand in the People’s Republic of China, and possible impact of increasing non-tariff measures. According to this paper, it further states that much of the weak import demand is likely
to be temporary — developing Asia gained a 1.5% increase in exports in 2016, after a 0.8% decline in 2015. Among South Asian economies, India and Sri Lanka are expected to have better export volume growth in 2016.
Author: Ganeshan Wignaraja, Juzhong Zhuang, Mahinthan J. Mariasingham, and Madeline Dumaua-Cabauatan
Tags: Global Value Chains, Import, Export, India, Sri Lanka, Non-Tariff Measures, Trade Facilitation
Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2016: Recent Trends and Developments
The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2016 reports that the Asia-Pacific region is still the largest exporter of goods globally, with a share of 40%. Its share in commercial services trade is also on the rise, while restrictiveness of services trade has not increased. Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows is also growing at a much faster pace compared to the global average, with special economic zones being used as one of the modalities to attract FDI. India, in particular, has been attracting an increasing portion of FDI inflows, both from outside and inside the region. While economies in Asia and the Pacific continue to make progress toward trade facilitation, there are still huge gaps among subregional economies, with much needing to be done to reduce trade costs. Furthermore, efforts undertaken to reduce trade costs through trade facilitation have been partially offset by imposition of a large number of new trade distortive measures globally and regionally, with most of these new measures falling under the non-tariff category.
Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
Tags: Export, Trade Facilitation, Non-Tariff Measures, FDI, South Asia, India, Special Economic Zones
Implementing the Trade Facilitation Agreement: From Vision to Reality
Low income to upper-middle income countries stand to gain a 14.6% to 16.5% reduction in trade costs upon implementation of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). This publication looks at progression of the TFA – from conclusion of the talks at the 2013 Bali Ministerial Conference to preparations for the Agreement to take effect, as the valedictory moment of the TFA's entry into force nears. It highlights milestones, discusses the state of the ratification process, reviews implementation schedules, and examines work still to be done.
Author: Nora Neufeld
Tags: Trade Facilitation, WTO, Least Developed Countries, Import, Export
South Asia Economic Focus, Fall 2016: Investment Reality Check
South Asia continues on a path of gradual acceleration in 2016, led by a solid India. However, amid the resilience to external headwinds, including China’s slowdown and uncertainty surrounding monetary policy in advanced economies, South Asia is starting to feel the effect of slowing remittance flows or waning oil price dividends. Against this backdrop, this World Bank publication forecasts growth for the region at 7.1% in 2016, with its medium-term performance strongly dependent on investment and export turnout. India is set to grow at 7.6% in 2016, with the same speed as in 2015, but may increase its pace again in 2017 to 7.7%. The report highlights how private investment is a key future growth driver across South Asia that could help further boost the pace of economic activity.
Author: World Bank
Tags: India, South Asia, Investment, Economic Growth, WB, Export
World Trade Statistical Review 2016
The World Trade Statistical Review is the World Trade Organization's latest flagship publication offering a detailed analysis of the latest developments on global trade in goods and services—including developments in trade policy and participation of developing economies and least developed countries—examined through analytical chapters, complemented by over 50 tables. The publication reports that in 2015, developing Asia represented 67% of developing economies’ exports. In merchandise trade, India ranked 9th among the world's top exporter of agricultural products, and continues to be one of the top 3 textile exporters, which accounts for nearly 2/3s of world exports. A 25% decline in LDC exports was reported, due to the negative impact of the drop in fuel prices and mining products. LDC participation in global exports of commercial services also remained negligible at 0.8%. In trade policy making, the publication reported that WTO members introduced 132 measures to facilitate trade, yet applied 154 new trade-restrictive measures during the period between mid-October 2015 and mid-May 2016.
Author: World Trade Organization
Tags: Trade, Export, India, Least Developed Countries
Nepal Investment Guide 2016
Nepal Investment Guide 2016 was published to provide information about investment opportunities in Nepal and the process of doing business. It identifies potential sectors for investment; relevant government agencies for foreign businesses; existing laws on labor, taxation, and imports and exports; special economic zones; and comparative benefits to investors.
Author: Nepal Office of the Investment Board
Tags: Nepal, Import, Export, Investment
Outward FDI by Indian Manufacturing MNEs: Impacts and Implications
This Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade Working Paper investigates the home country effects of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) on domestic activity of Indian multinational enterprises (MNEs). The empirical evidence suggests that OFDI by Indian MNEs has a positive impact on export intensity and research and development. In order to derive desired complementary benefits of OFDI by manufacturing firms, policies may be directed to enhance the country’s international supply chain connectivity for greater participation in global value chain and production network.
Author: Khanindra Ch. Das
Tags: India, FDI, Global Value Chains, Trade, Export, Development, Manufacturing, UNESCAP
Estimating the Benefits of Cross-Border Paperless Trade
Cross-border paperless trade is trade that occurs on the basis of electronic communications and has been part of customs reform efforts in a variety of countries. Increased implementation of cross-border paperless trade is high on the trade facilitation agenda in Asia-Pacific. This report considers six measures to calculate estimates of possible economic benefits of cross-border paperless trade through counterfactual simulations using 2013 data and simple econometric models. Simulation results reveal that this new generation of trade facilitation can significantly reduce trade costs and boost intra- and extra-regional trade in the region. Partial implementation of these measures can lead to an export increase of $36 billion annually. Total direct cost savings across all trade is about $1 billion per annum for partial reform, and $7 billion for full implementation.
Author: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
Tags: Trade Facilitation, Trade, Asia-Pacific, UNESCAP, Customs, Export, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka
Evaluating Aid for Trade on the Ground: Lessons from Bangladesh
This paper assesses the effectiveness and impact of aid for trade (AfT) in Bangladesh in a series of eight country studies by the International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development. The study argues that the results for AfT are mixed for Bangladesh since it has addressed supply side constraints and contributed to enhancing export competitiveness. However, lack of efficient administrative mechanisms, limited human capacity, and political instability that lead to low absorption capacity limits the overall effectiveness and impact of AfT in Bangladesh.
Author: Fahmida Khatun, Samina Hossain and Nepoleon Dewan
Tags: Bangladesh, Trade, Aid for Trade, Sustainability, Export, Development, Asia, Gender, LDC, Least Developed Countries