Energy Results

Energy demand in the SASEC subregion is expected to increase over the next decade resulting from economic growth and rising per capita incomes and energy consumption. With energy resources in South Asia unevenly spread, regional energy cooperation could help countries develop their energy resources in an optimal manner to lower energy costs, improve regional energy security, and contribute to climate change mitigation. SASEC initiatives in the energy sector support improvement of energy trade infrastructure, developing a regional power market by harmonizing legal and regulatory frameworks, and developing low-carbon alternatives and conservation and energy efficiency measures.


total items: 37
ADB Annual Report 2018

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) supports cross-border infrastructure to help foster regional cooperation and integration. It is transforming transport corridors into economic corridors, allowing South Asian countries to participate in regional and global value chains and promote agriculture trade. In 2018, ADB committed $150 million to upgrade sections of South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) road corridors in India and Nepal. The investments aim to improve connectivity between Manipur (in India) and Myanmar; build an India–Nepal international bridge; and improve the safety of Nepal’s East–West Highway. ADB also approved a technical assistance project to build institutional capacity and improve expertise of trade facilitation officials in SASEC member countries.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Impact Evaluation of Energy Interventions: A Review of the Evidence

Impact evaluations in the energy sector has so far focused on rural electrification and improved cookstoves. However, most investments have been in power generation and transmission. This energy sector impact evaluation report assesses what has been produced against what might be possible. It summarizes outcomes of 85 impact evaluations of energy interventions in developing countries, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal. It looks at evidence gaps and proposes future directions for impact evaluations in the energy sector.

Source: David A. Raitzer, Nina Blöndal, and Jasmin Sibal

Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2019: Ambitions beyond Growth

The Asia-Pacific region needs an estimated $1.5 trillion per year to end poverty and hunger, provide basic health care, quality education, enabling infrastructure, and clean energy for all, and for climate action and living in harmony with nature. Available public and private resources make these ambitions affordable for most countries in the region. However, development partnerships and regional cooperation are needed for all countries to achieve these “ambitions beyond growth.”

Source: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Basic Statistics 2019

Basic Statistics presents select economic, environmental, and social indicators used to track progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals. It includes indicators for development indicators for 46 economies in the Asia and Pacific region, including those for the seven SASEC countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Basic Statistics 2018

Basic Statistics presents development indicators for 45 economies in the Asia and Pacific region, including those for the seven SASEC countries, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It presents selected core indicators such as international and national poverty rates, inflation, and current account balance. It also presents information on indicators related to land, population, sustainable development goals, national accounts, money, balance of payments, reserves, external debt, and central government finance.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Asian Development Outlook 2018 Supplement: The Outlook Remains Stable

South Asia continues to be the fastest expanding subregion, with growth on track to achieve forecasts of 7.0% in 2018 and 7.2% in 2019. India will meet April forecasts of 7.3% in 2018 and 7.6% in 2019. Owing to strong agricultural growth in Bangladesh and industry growth in Nepal, 2018 GDP growth in the two countries surpassed earlier forecasts. Decline in construction slowed Sri Lanka’s economic growth to 3.2% while hydropower production was lower than forecast in Bhutan. Cement, wood, and metal imports grew in Maldives.

Source: Asian Development Bank

How Would Cross-Border Electricity Trade Stimulate Hydropower Development in South Asia?

South Asia uses only 20% its hydropower potential, estimated at more than 350 gigawatts. This report looks at regional electricity trade and examines the potential of hydropower development and trade in the region. It studies the importance of improving cross-border transmission interconnections to promote hydropower in South Asia. It also shows that large hydropower development would provide the additional benefits of irrigation and flood control that can be shared among neighboring countries, such as Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

Source: Govinda R. Timilsina

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2018

This report presents the latest economic, financial, social, and environmental statistics for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). In 2017, foreign direct investment flows to developing Asia was stable, with 8.8% going to South Asia; energy gains were made in five of six countries in South Asia; and starting a business continues become easier in most developing ADB member economies following lowered regulatory costs and simplified compliance procedures. Nepal and Armenia experienced the most rapid annual growth rate at 7.5%, while India witnessed a 6.7% growth in GDP.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Meeting Asia's Infrastructure Needs

This report estimates infrastructure investment needs in Asia and the Pacific for 2016-2030, updating the Asian Development Bank's assessment for 2010-2020 published in 2009. The report places developing Asia's investment needs at $26 trillion to maintain its growth momentum, eradicate poverty, and respond to climate change. While developing Asia's infrastructure, including its transport network and electricity generation capacity, has improved significantly over the years, it remains far from adequate – lack of reliable power supply continues to constrain economic growth and traffic congestion results in lost productivity, wasted fuel, and human stress. The report recommends $14.7 trillion investment for power and $8.4 trillion for transport. South Asia requires investments valued at 8.8% of gross domestic product.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Regional Cooperation for Sustainable Energy in Asia and the Pacific

Countries in the Asia-Pacific region face multiple energy-related challenges, which are driving transformation of energy systems. Addressing these energy challenges is an integral part of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. This report analyzes challenges in the Asia-Pacific region and its efforts to accelerate the energy transition to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 7.

Source: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Basic Statistics 2017

Basic Statistics 2017 contains development indicators for 45 economies in the Asia and Pacific Region, including the seven SASEC countries, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It includes selected indicators of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as the proportion of population living below $1.90 (PPP) a day, proportion of population with access to electricity, renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption, unemployment rate, total official flows for infrastructure, and trade balance.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2017 Update: Sustaining Development through Public-Private Partnership

Developing Asia is forecast to expand by 5.9% in 2017 and 5.8% in 2018, a slight upgrade from projections in the Asian Development Outlook 2017. However, growth forecast for South Asia is downgraded to 6.7% in 2017. India’s growth remains strong and most South Asian countries are expected to meet or exceed growth forecasts from April. Exceptions are Sri Lanka, where agriculture was affected by drought and floods, and Bhutan, where geological problems have constrained construction on two large hydropower projects. Growth in Nepal surged in 2017 on earthquake recovery but is slowing as agriculture struggles, following severe flooding in August 2017. Inflation forecast in South Asia is lowered to 4.2% for 2017 and 4.7% for 2018. Favorable global commodity prices, good harvests, and prudent macroeconomics are expected.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Asian Development Bank and Nepal: Fact Sheet

The ADB Fact Sheet provides social and economic indicators on Nepal, as well as information on ADB operations in the country and contact details. Nepal is working toward graduation to middle-income country status and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. ADB assistance aims to improve equitable access to education while pursuing a strategy that aims to address bottlenecks in infrastructure development in energy, transport, and urban facilities. ADB operations will also focus on agriculture, gender equality, good governance, environmental sustainability, regional cooperation, and private sector development.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Nepal Energy Sector Assessment, Strategy, and Road Map

To improve energy security and stimulate economic growth in the face of an unprecedented energy crisis, Nepal is accelerating the development of its hydropower sector. This report examines the performance of Nepal’s energy sector amid development constraints, and highlights government development plans and strategy. It assesses the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB’s) future support strategy, which sees Nepal’s energy sector as a key driver of inclusive economic growth.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2017

This report gives the latest statistics on economic, financial, environmental, and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank, including up-to-date figures on energy, trade, and transport. In 2016, Asia and the Pacific accounted for 40.9% of global gross domestic product (GDP). While foreign direct investment (FDI) flows declined in East Asia and Southeast Asia in 2016, FDI flows to South Asia remained stable. The average number of days required to start a business in South Asia was 16. Energy consumption is also expected to increase in the coming decades owing to increasing GDP per capita and an increase in the use of energy-consuming goods.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Regional Cooperation and Integration in Asia and the Pacific: Implementation of the Operational Plan for Regional Cooperation and Integration, 2016–2020─Corporate Progress Report 2017

Regional cooperation and integration (RCI) is a valuable means for attaining national development goals. This report reviews ADB’s progress in implementing its Operational Plan for Regional Cooperation and Integration, 2016–2020, and identifies areas for improvement. It takes a close look at progress in connectivity, competitiveness, and regional public goods and collective action through projects such as the Nepal: SASEC Customs Reform and Modernization for Trade Facilitation Program.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Least Developed Countries Report 2017

This report focuses on transformational energy access for the LDCs, where 62% of people have no access to electricity. It makes a case for trade in electricity, such as the 2014 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation framework agreement for regional cooperation on electricity among Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. International and regional trade in electricity could help lower electricity prices, mitigate power shocks, relieve shortages, and facilitate the transition to cleaner energy.

Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Harmonizing Electricity Laws in South Asia

Many in South Asia face electricity shortages that affect their socioeconomic development. But the region has a large hydropower potential and other energy resources that may be harnessed to drive growth in the region. This report looks at legal, regulatory, technical, and commercial requirements for energy trade to advance in the region, and gives recommendations for implementing the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Framework Agreement on Energy Trade.

Source: Asian Development Bank and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation in Law

Economic Benefits from Nepal-India Electricity Trade

This report confirms Nepal and India's viable electricity export potential, and highlights how facilitating cross-border trade of electricity will benefit both countries. In Nepal, substantial economic gains can boost the economy and improve the well-being of its people—in 2045 under the accelerated power trade scenario, electricity trade revenue can bring in up to $9.8 billion. In India, gains from cross-border trade centers on lower electricity system cost—hydropower imports from Nepal will allow India to forgo some investment needed to meet its capacity demand. Furthermore, hydropower will complement India's solar and wind power generation, offering an affordable and convenient renewable resource to meet its evening peak demand.

Source: South Asia Regional Initiative for Energy Integration

Study for Development of a Potential Hydropower Plant in South Asia

Rapid development in South Asia has produced a huge surge in energy demand. Nepal, with more than 83,000 megawatts of potential hydropower supply, can significantly increase the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region's energy security. This study highlights ongoing hydropower projects in Nepal, in particular, the Sunkoshi 2 Storage Project, which has the potential to become a regional hydropower plant in South Asia. It also emphasizes the need to expand the region's power transmission infrastructure to promote power trade, and updating of policies that govern cross-border electricity trade among countries in the region.

Source: SAARC Energy Centre

Asia-Pacific Countries with Special Needs Development Report 2015

In the Asia-Pacific region, 36 out of the 58 economies are considered countries with special needs (CSN), which include least developed countries (LDC), landlocked developing countries, and small island developing States. This report highlights important areas that should be addressed as key priorities by CSNs such as economic diversification, external trade, South-South cooperation, and official development assistance including foreign direct investment. Bhutan and Nepal met the criteria for graduation from LDC status as of 2013. Other countries such as Bangladesh have a good chance of meeting the graduation criteria by 2018. Among the Small island developing States, Maldives is considered a success story in broadband internet connectivity. The results of this research show that Asia-Pacific CSNs must choose their paths to diversification carefully, depending on country circumstances.

Source: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Cross-Border Electricity Cooperation in South Asia

Strengthening cross-border electricity cooperation in South Asia can be part of the solution for providing adequate and reliable electricity. This World Bank Policy Research Working Paper reviews the status of cross-border electricity cooperation in South Asia, identifies key regional-level barriers to expand cross-border cooperation and trade in South Asia, and discusses the extent to which current domestic sector policies impede greater cross-border electricity cooperation. Finally, the findings offer policy recommendations on increased cross-border trade and cooperation.

Source: Anoop Singh, Tooraj Jamasb, Rabindra Nepal, and Michael Toman

World Trade Organization Annual Report 2015

The World Trade Organization (WTO) Annual Report 2015 provides an overview of WTO activities in 2014 and early 2015. It presents a timeline of two decades of the WTO -- from its origins succeeding the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to its current role in the multilateral trading system. It presents a chapter on how WTO helps developing countries build trade capacity and allows them to implement trade agreements. WTO training courses are organized for officials from developing countries each year.

Source: World Trade Organization

Nepal: Development Effectiveness Brief 2014

Nepal has the potential to achieve more inclusive growth and can largely benefit from regional cooperation and integration with its developing neighbors. It is also benefiting from South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation, a flagship ADB-supported program that promotes economic cooperation and integration in areas of trade facilitation (custom modernization and transport connectivity), power development, trade, and tourism development. This brief further explores ADB’s contribution to inclusive development and poverty reduction, energy, and transport. Exporting energy when surplus is available is one way of meeting seasonal demand by subregional cooperation and power trade. Transport infrastructure is also another key ingredient to equitable, inclusive growth that can address challenges such as lack of market access, inadequate roads, and poor connectivity.

Source: Asian Development Bank

SASEC Website Brochure

This promotional brochure for the SASEC website features the web portal as a one-stop shop for information on SASEC activities, events, projects, and knowledge materials. The SASEC website seeks to build a dynamic discussion platform and repository of data on regional cooperation.

Source: Asian Development Bank

SASEC Brochure

This promotional brochure is a concise introduction to the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Program, highlighting the main areas of regional cooperation and activity. It includes facts and figures about SASEC projects in transport, trade facilitation, energy, and ICT.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Bridging Transport, ICT, and Energy Infrastructure Gaps for Seamless Regional Connectivity

This publication is a contribution by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific to deliberations at the Second United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) in Vienna, Austria, 3-5 November 2014. It shows regional connectivity as an unfinished agenda and bridging infrastructure gaps as a complex challenge for LLDCs. While physical infrastructure is a priority, this report argues that deeper regional integration – through regionally cohesive and terrestrial networks – is key to effectively linking Asian LLDCs to the region’s infrastructure networks.

Source: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2014

This year's edition presents an in-depth inquiry on poverty in Asia, tackling whether the $1.25/day extreme poverty standard still accurately depicts minimum living standard of the poor in Asia and the Pacific. Using this broad measure, the poverty rate is projected to fall to 24.5% for South Asia by 2030, if recent economic growth trends continue. However, considering the current national poverty line average among today's less developed economies in the region, an Asia-specific extreme poverty line is more accurately estimated at $1.51/day, increasing Asia’s poverty rate in 2010 by 9.8%, and of a large economy like India by 15%. Hence, despite huge gains made, reducing poverty remains a pressing challenge in Asia and the Pacific. This book proposes several measures to counteract worsening poverty, including close regional cooperation which can reduce a country’s vulnerability, and urgent policy actions that promote economic growth and prioritize climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Source: Asian Development Bank

South Asia Energy Security: Challenges and Opportunities

The imbalance between the growing demand for energy in South Asia and the countries' uneven energy resources has led to weakened energy security in the region. Import dependence from outside the region has become a costly solution. As countries in South Asia move to expand their economies, fostering cross border energy trade and promoting energy investment opportunities could be a better alternative to resolving the energy deficit. However, energy cooperation within South Asia is challenged by major issues that could impede regional energy trade that is beneficial for all.

Source: Bhupendra Kumar Singh

ADB Regional Cooperation Operations Business Plan (RCOBP) 2014-2016 for South Asia

ADB's third Regional Cooperation Operations Business Plan (RCOBP) 2014-2016 for South Asia under its South Asia Regional Cooperation Strategy (RCS) 2011-2015 details a cumulative indicative lending program of $3.3 billion and maintains focus on improved regional connectivity, increased cross-border trade, and strengthened regional economic cooperation.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Financing Low-Carbon UrbanDevelopment in South Asia: A Post-2012 Context

The cities of South Asia are growing at an unprecedented rate. Currently, the region accounts for 5 of the world's 26 megacities (Delhi, Dhaka, Karachi, Kolkata, and Mumbai),with Kolkata and Mumbai being the most dense. The urban population in India is expected to increase by 20.8 percentage points between 2010 and 2050 compared to 7.8 percentage points in Latin America and the Caribbean. These trends necessitate bold efforts in project design and financing to steer this rapid urbanization onto an inclusive, green, and low-carbon urban development path.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific: October 2013

The Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific aims to support ADB energy sector operations by providing stakeholders with an energy outlook for the region up to the year 2035. It attempts to identify policy, social, infrastructure, and technology issues that must be addressed to meet future energy need of ADB members in Asia and the Pacific.

Source: Asian Development Bank

The Institutions of Regionalism in South Asia - Do Institutions Matter?

This paper assesses the contribution of key institutions of regional cooperation and integration (RCI) in South Asia, and suggests ways in which the Asian Development Bank and other development partners can strengthen their support. It attempts to enhance understanding on the interplay between politics and RCI, including how good bilateral political relations or improvements have advanced RCI. With the overall political environment growing increasingly open to RCI, the paper suggests the time has come for the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) to consider strengthening the capacity of the SAARC Secretariat to meet the growing challenges and work load of managing the anticipated increase in RCI.

Source: Prabhu Ghate

South Asia- Intra Regional Cooperation: The Way Forward

This study aims to showcase the benefits of regional integration and recommends strategies for overcoming the many hurdles.

Source: Shahid Kardar

Sector Roadmaps with Result Frameworks

Sector roadmaps with result frameworks for transport, energy, and trade facilitation.

Source: Asian Development Bank

Binding Contraints to Regional Cooperation and Integration in South Asia

This paper examines the benefits of regional cooperation and integration, focusing on the cost of neglecting to address the binding constraints to regional cooperation and integration. Component papers in this volume analyze the current state of play, and identifies the binding constraints to achieving more efficient transport corridors, regional energy trade and trade facilitation in the region.

Source: Gilberto M. Llanto

The Provision of Regional Public Goods in South Asia

This report reviews the provision of high priority regional public goods (RPGs) selected for the South Asia subregion, and proposes areas of cooperation for improving the provisioning of RPGs in South Asia. It highlights the issues in cross border management of infrastructure projects and best practices in the provisioning of RPGs relevant for South Asia, evaluates ADB’s contributions to providing RPGs in the subregion, and concludes with recommendations on ADB’s South Asia Regional Department’s role in the provision of RPGs in the subregion.

Source: Khaja Moinuddin